THE LADY IN THE LAKE (1943) ****
by Raymond Chandler
This paperback edition published by Penguin, 2011, 284pp
First published in the UK by Hamish Hamilton in 1944
© Raymond Chandler, 1943
Blurb: Private Investigator Philip Marlowe is hired to find a missing woman. Derace Kingsley’s wife ran away to Mexico to get a divorce and marry a hunk named Chris Lavery. Or so the note she left her husband says. Trouble is when Philip Marlowe asks Lavery about it he denies everything. But when Marlowe next encounters Lavery, he’s denying nothing – on account of the two bullet holes in his heart. Now Marlowe’s on the trail of a killer, who leads him out of smoggy Los Angeles all the way to a murky mountain lake . . .
Comment: This is the fourth novel by Raymond Chandler featuring his highly influential private eye, Philip Marlowe. The novel was adapted from an earlier short story, written in 1939 for the Dime Detective pulp magazine and later included in the short story collection Killer in the Rain. The plot is as complex as ever but set between a tighter cast of characters than usual, so the reader is never taken to the point of bafflement. Chandler’s prose and dialogue is fluid as he unravels the mystery of a disappearing wife through his customary first-person account. Whilst the novel is not Chandler at his peak, it remains an intriguing and satisfying mystery that is as efficient as they come – its lengthening from the original short story length feels natural and includes more plot elements. The interchange of setting between the fictional Bay City suburb of Los Angeles and the mountain lake provides a neat contrast. The tie-up finale may seem a little too convenient in the way Marlowe unravels the clues seemingly very quickly, with Chandler not having shared his protagonist’s thoughts on the lead-up, but it makes for a strong and surprising, revelation in the book’s final scenes. Chandler demonstrates throughout his mastery of the form, even though here his plot is less challenging than say those of his first two novels.
The Philip Marlowe novels of Raymond Chandler:
The Big Sleep (1939) *****
Farewell, My Lovely (1940) *****
The High Window (1942) ****
The Lady in the Lake (1943) ****
The Little Sister (1949) ****
The Long Goodbye (1953) *****
Playback (1958) ***
THE ROCKFORD FILES: DEVIL ON MY DOORSTEP (1998) ***
by Stuart M. Kaminsky
This paperback edition published by Forge, May 2001, 304pp
First published in March 1998
© MCA Publishing Rights, 1998
Based on the Universal Television series The Rockford Files created by Roy Huggins and Stephen J. Cannell
Blurb: Jim Rockford is in one hell of a mess–the credit companies are after his stuff, his buddy Angel has cooked up another scheme that is a sure thing (sure enough to get them both killed), and he’s way behind on everything. When a beautiful young girl shows up at his door claiming to be the daughter of an old flame, he’s dubious. When she claims that she’s his daughter, all the bells go off. She’s on the run, scared, and tells Jim that she thinks someone has killed her mother…and that someone is her stepfather. Whatever the outcome, Jim will do what it takes to find the truth, no matter how painful it may be. And he’ll even try not to get killed in the process.
Comment: Kaminsky delivers a thoroughly competent novel based on the popular ’70s TV show The Rockford Files, or more accurately the ’90s revival TV movies – the period in which this story is set. This is the second of two novels Kaminsky wrote featuring private eye Jim Rockford, the first being The Green Bottle in 1996. The author is obviously a connoisseur of the series and gets the characterisations of the regulars spot on. Whilst relaying the story in the first person is par for the genre, it is an interesting approach given the series was not geared that way. It gives us the opportunity to see everything that happens in this convoluted tale through Rockford’s eyes. The approach works very well in keeping the reader hooked on the mystery elements as Rockford plays off the gangsters and the Feds as he tries to discover the truth about the disappearance of an old flame and the girl who claims to be his daughter. Whilst the plot feels a little overplayed at times the writing is good and the dialogue entertaining – notably the banter between Rockford and con-man Angel. Kaminsky also introduces an eccentric assassin who quotes classic poetry. The rest of the gangster plot is standard stuff. It’s a shame Kaminsky’s series stalled after just two books – for whatever reason – as Rockford is one of the most engaging modern private eyes and the charisma of James Garner from the TV series bleeds through onto the written page.
BERGERAC: ALL FOR LOVE (UK, 1991) ***½
Distributor: British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC); Production Company: British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) / Seven Network; Release Date: 26 December 1991; Running Time: 106m; Colour: Colour; Sound Mix: Dolby; Film Format: 16mm; Aspect Ratio: 1.33:1; BBFC Cert: 12.
Director: Terry Marcel; Writer: John Milne; Producer: George Gallaccio; Director of Photography: John Walker; Music Composer: Ray Russell, Kevin Townend; Theme Music: George Fenton; Film Editor: Bernard Ashby; Production Designer: Merle Downie, Stephen Sharratt; Costumes: Jacky Levy; Make-up: Pauline Cox; Sound: Simon Wilson; Stunt Arranger: Rocky Taylor.
Cast:John Nettles (Jim Bergerac), Terence Alexander (Hungerford), Deborah Grant (Deborah Bergerac), Simon Williams (Rupert Draper), Suzan Crowley (Cressida Draper), Bill Nighy (Barry), Roger Sloman (Inspector Deffand), John Telfer (Willy Pettit), Al Ashton (DC Ramsden), David Kershaw (Ben Lomas), Jane Downs (Petra Crowe-Smith), Peter Watts (Ronnie), Philip Glenister (Philip), Bruno Madinier (Pascal), Charmaine Parsons (Ellie), Catherine Rabett (Jane), Iain Rattray (Club Waiter), Malcolm Gerard (Dentist), Gordon Salkilld (Barman).
Synopsis: After receiving a letter from Danielle ending their relationship, Jim Bergerac starts drinking again. To keep him out of trouble, Charlie takes him to Bath, where art dealer Rupert Draper will be buying a painting that Charlie was given as payment for a debt. Once in Bath, Jim falls for the charms of Rupert’s faithless wife, unaware that she is using him to take the rap for a murder, back in Jersey, where a body is found in the burnt-out remains of Rupert’s shop.
Comment: The last of six feature-length Bergerac specials and the last ever episode of the series was broadcast at Christmas 1991. Series 9 had seen a major shift in the series with Bergerac operating as a private investigator. As a result the series lost much of its charm and the constant switches of locale between Jersey and France did not help. However, for this final feature-length special the noir-ish elements hinted at through the preceding season finally gelled into one of the series’s strongest episoides. Nettles gives his best performance in the title role, with Bergerac having drifted back in to alcoholism and being made the patsy for an insurance con. Crowley makes a strong impression as the scheming femme fatale. Nighy is also on hand as a hired assassin who also falls under Crowley’s spell. The climax may feel a little contrived, but the episode delivers a compelling story and points to where the show could have gone had it not been cancelled.
BERGERAC: SECOND TIME AROUND (UK, 1989) ***½
Distributor: British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC); Production Company: British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) / Seven Network; Release Date: 23 December 1989; Running Time: 97m; Colour: Colour; Sound Mix: Dolby; Film Format: 16mm; Aspect Ratio: 1.33:1; BBFC Cert: 12.
Director: Peter Ellis; Writer: Ian Kennedy Martin; Producer: George Gallaccio; Director of Photography: John Walker; Music Composer: Ray Russell; Theme Music: George Fenton; Film Editor: Bernard Ashby; Production Designer: Martin Methven; Costumes: Barrie Sedwell; Make-up: Christine Greenwood; Sound: Malcolm Campbell; Stunt Arranger: Gareth Milne.
Cast: John Nettles (Jim Bergerac), Terence Alexander (Hungerford), Sean Arnold (Crozier), John Telfer (Willy Pettit), David Kershaw (Ben Lomas), David Schofield (David Mason), Jenifer Landor (Elizabeth Dufresne), Donald Sumpter (Harry Tilson), Prentis Hancock (Arthur Medley), Richard Hawley (Michael Fulton), Chris Langham (Devas), Andrew Sachs (Moise Davidson), Rupert Frazer (Ted Grob), Sarah Neville (Sally Collins), Derrick Branche (Damian Shore), Elizabeth Bradley (Mrs. Maurice), Lisa Climie (Wendy), Pavel Douglas (De Lavarre), Clare Byam-Shaw (Dr. Bonham).
Synopsis: David Mason murders Ted Grob by throwing him into a swimming pool, handcuffed to a patio recliner. Jim returns to duty to solve the murder and is asked by an ex-con who believes he was framed to go back over the details of the robbery of a courier company some years earlier which has a connection with the recent death.
Comment: The fourth of six feature-length Bergerac specials, this one broadcast at Christmas 1989 ahead of series 8. By this time changes were afoot in the series with Nettles’ Bergerac a much more reflective character following his split with long-time girlfriend Susan Young (an absent Louise Jameson); Sean Arnold’s Crozier has been promoted to Superintendent and is operationg from police HQ, without the services of secretary Peggy Masters and Jim’s ex-family are long gone to London. The stories had become tougher and the new approach is no more evident than in this flashy, violent heist thriller with its explosive finale. It’s well-written and typical of Kennedy Martin’s hard-nosed approach to crime series – he did, after all, create The Sweeney. There’s a strong performances from Schofield – in one of his unhinged bad guy roles – and Landor briefly gives Bergerac hope of a new love interest. Producer Gallaccio may have been trying to move the series away from its cosier approach by giving it the edge of the more action-orientated dramas of the period, but in doing so he had taken something of the character of the series away. As a result, the series lost some of its charms whilst gaining a bigger budget and slick action set-pieces.
BERGERAC: RETIREMENT PLAN (UK, 1988) ***
Distributor: British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC); Production Company: British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) / Seven Network; Release Date: 27 December 1988; Running Time: 94m; Colour: Colour; Sound Mix: Dolby; Film Format: 16mm; Aspect Ratio: 1.33:1; BBFC Cert: 12.
Director: Edward Bennett; Writer: Edmund Ward; Producer: George Gallaccio; Director of Photography: John Walker; Music Composer: Ray Russell; Theme Music: George Fenton; Film Editor: Bernard Ashby; Production Designer: Phil Roberson; Costumes: Barrie Sedwell; Make-up: Benita Barrell; Sound: Malcolm Campbell; Stunt Arranger: Gareth Milne.
Cast: John Nettles (Jim Bergerac), Terence Alexander (Hungerford), Louise Jameson (Susan Young), Nicholas Ball (Gravel Beresford), James Laurenson (Raoul Fuegas), Sylvester Morand (Harry Lubeck), Constantine Gregory (Diego Ferrera), Sean Arnold (Crozier), Barrie Houghton (Reno), Danny Webb (Joe Grantham), Micha Bergese (Costello), Sue Lloyd (Eva Southurst), Carmen Du Sautoy (Marie Chantel), Anthony Calf (Simon Lorrilard), Matyelok Gibbs (Alice Thorwell), Bill Stewart (Gully), Paul Angelis (Jack Thorwell), John Telfer (Willy Pettit), David Kershaw (Ben Lomas), Nancy Mansfield (Peggy Masters), Hilary Mason (Miss Amberton), Robert McBain (George Beck), Dave Atkins (Wesley), Jonathan Oliver (Pathologist), Catherine Livesey (Woman House Buyer).
Synopsis: Jim is summoned from Jersey to spend Christmas on the Costa Del Sol where a pair of small-time British crooks have tried to muscle in on Charlie’s latest business venture. When Jim gets involved he finds himself in the middle of a local gang war whilst back on Jersey a group of French thieves are causing havoc and Susan’s life is put in danger.
Comment: The third of six feature-length Bergerac specials, this one broadcast at Christmas 1988 ahead of series 7. Series 6 had seen a new producer on board in George Gallaccio, who added a harder edge and more complex plots to the series. His desired style is fully evident in this episode which includes two separate plot threads. However, there is no connection between them, which gives the impression the special has been cobbled together from two distinct stories with characters disappearing without an explanation. The end result is a disjointed affair, despite the excellent supporting cast – notably Houghton’s piano-playing assassin and Du Sautoy’s high class thief – and the use of exotic Spanish locations.
BERGERAC: TREASURE HUNT (UK, 1987) ***
Distributor: British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC); Production Company: British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) / Seven Network; Release Date: 26 December 1987; Running Time: 90m; Colour: Colour; Sound Mix: Dolby; Film Format: 16mm; Aspect Ratio: 1.33:1; BBFC Cert: 12.
Director: Robert Tronson; Writer: Rod Beacham; Producer: Jonathan Alwyn; Director of Photography: Kevin Rowley; Music Composer: Ray Russell; Theme Music: George Fenton; Film Editor: Bernard Ashby; Production Designer: Phil Roberson; Costumes: Barrie Sedwell; Make-up: Di Roberts; Sound: Simon Wilson; Visual Effects: Robert Thomas; Stunt Arranger: Gareth Milne.
Cast: John Nettles (Jim Bergerac), Terence Alexander (Hungerford), Liza Goddard (Philippa Vale), James Maxwell (Raymond Charteris), Peter Jeffrey (Rockwell), Lynette Davies (Miranda Bassett), David Horovitch (Simeon Fox), John Grillo (Cyril Clavering), Sean Arnold (Crozier), Louise Jameson (Susan Young), Greg Hicks (Gregory Ormond), Carol Harrison (Tina Bragg), Michael Melia (Inspector Petch), Rosemary Frankau (Museum Curator), Nancy Mansfield (Peggy Masters), Geoffrey Leesley (DC Terry Wilson), Jolyon Baker (DC Barry Goddard), Steve Paget (Sgt. Grieve), David Beckett (Vincent), Chris Donat (Security Assistant), Stuart Saunders (Sir Roger Carfax), John Cassady (Leao), John Crocker (Shop Keeper), Marilyn Le Conte (Desk Clerk), Penny Smith (Waitress at Garden Party), Theresa Fresson (Waitress at Cafe), Christopher Dunne (Chaplain), Dorothea Alexander (Lady with Dog), Gareth Milne (Tony Bragg).
Synopsis: Tony Bragg, suspected fence in a huge diamond heist is pushed to his death from his London flat. Bragg had visited Jersey some while earlier and Scotland Yard asks for Jim’s help. Then Philippa Vale arrives on the island with Bragg’s associate Ormond, who is also killed.
Comment: The second of six feature-length Bergerac specials (this one broadcast on Boxing Day 1987 just ahead of series 6). Unlike “Fires in the Fall” this episode sticks to the series formula and notably that which makes the Bergerac/Philippa Vale episodes so popular. Whilst the story is not as strong as the three previous standard episodes (“Ice Maiden”, “Return of the Ice Maiden” and “SPARTA”), this does at least progress the relationship between Nettles’ dedicated detective and Goddard’s charming and witty jewel thief. Their chemistry and Goddard’s note-perfect delivery shines through. The plot is convoluted, but not especially engaging and Jeffrey is wasted in a role that gives him little to do until the finale. Some of the humour is also a little laboured, despite the writer/director team having reunited from the previous episodes. The denouement is poor, but there is a neat coda, which suggests we’ll see Goddard’s Philippa again.
BERGERAC: FIRES IN THE FALL (UK, 1986) ***½
Distributor: British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC); Production Company: British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) / Seven Network; Release Date: 26 December 1986; Running Time: 89m; Colour: Colour; Sound Mix: Dolby; Film Format: 16mm; Aspect Ratio: 1.33:1; BBFC Cert: 12.
Director: Tom Clegg; Writer: Chris Boucher; Producer: Jonathan Alwyn; Director of Photography: Alec Curtis, Adrian Smith; Music Composer: Ray Russell; Theme Music: George Fenton; Film Editor: Bernard Ashby, Paul Garrick; Production Designer: Ken Ledsham; Costumes: Andrew MacKenzie; Make-up: Marilyn MacDonald; Sound: Bill Chesneau; Visual Effects: Simon Tayler.
Cast: John Nettles (Jim Bergerac), Terence Alexander (Hungerford), Amanda Redman (Pauline Taylor), Barrie Ingham (Raoul Barnaby), Margaretta Scott (Roberta Jardine), Sean Arnold (Crozier), Louise Jameson (Susan Young), Donald Churchill (David MacKenzie), Paul Brooke (Malcolm Croxted), Ron Pember (Jack Plemont), Deborah Grant (Deborah Bergerac), Lindsay Heath (Kim Bergerac), Geoffrey Leesley (DC Terry Wilson), Jolyon Baker (DC Barry Goddard), Mela White (Diamante Lil), Nancy Mansfield (Peggy Masters), Jim McManus (Filing Clerk), Tony Westrope (Jeavans), Nicholas McArdle (Doctor), Guy Standeven (Vicar), Salomi Oxberry (Maria).
Synopsis: When an elderly millionairess puts her trust in a psychic who claims to speak to the dead, Jim is asked to debunk some supernatural myths.
Comment: The first of six feature-length Bergerac specials (broadcast at Christmas just ahead of series 5) builds on the approach tested in the earlier fourth series episode “What Dreams May Come?” by delving into the supernatural thriller genre. Like the earlier episode “Fires in the Fall” looks to explain these supernatural elements through a gradual reveal of its mystery. That it is both relatively successful, sometimes scary and often entertaining is testament to the directorial skills of Tom Clegg and the scripting of Chris Boucher. Ingham also adds greatly to the story with a creepy guest turn as a medium seemingly in contact with the dead. There’s also an early role for Redman as the put-upon niece of Scott’s wealthy retiree. All the series regulars are involved, with some lighter moments built around heating problems at the bureau. Whilst not totally satisfying, largely because it tries to introduce one twist too many during the finale, it remains a strong episode in a consistently entertaining series.
RESURRECTION MEN (1995) ****
by Ian Rankin
First published by Orion 2001
This edition published by Orion, 2011, 512pp (484pp)
includes an introduction by Ian Rankin and Reading Group Notes.
Blurb: Rebus is off the case – literally. A few days into the murder inquiry of an Edinburgh art dealer, Rebus blows up at a colleague. He is sent to the Scottish Police College for ‘retraining’ – in other words, he’s in the Last Chance Saloon. Rebus is assigned to an old, unsolved case, but there are those in his team who have their own secrets – and they’ll stop at nothing to protect them. Rebus is also asked to act as a go-between for gangster ‘Big Ger’ Cafferty. And as newly promoted DS Siobhan Clarke works the case of the murdered art dealer, she is brought closer to Cafferty than she could ever have anticipated…
Comment: Ian Rankin leaves Rebus out in the cold and takes him into darker territory than ever before in this long, but expertly written crime mystery thriller. Rankin weaves two distinct investigations together with great skill giving a much more prominent role for DS Siobhan Clark, enabling him to draw parallels between the two detectives. Rebus, working undercover for the Chief Constable to expose a group of corrupt cops, is as dogged and avuncular as ever. The separate cases become connected as Rankin gradually unveils the hidden secrets of the so-called “Wild Bunch” of detectives in the last-chance saloon. The story only really falters during its finale, where a plot twist feels a little too convenient but otherwise, this is a very satisfying and first-class example of crime fiction writing.
This completes my reading of Ian Rankin’s Rebus series and it is one of my favourites. Rankin relly hit his straps with Let if Bleed and then Black & Blue and from there the series reamined of a consistently high standard up until Rebus’ retirement in 2007’s Exit Music. That he returnede again five years later as a retired cop working cold cases was very welcome, but those books, whilst all well-written, lack the bite of the core series. I still hope there is more to come and look forward to seeing where Rankin takes Rebus next.
The Rebus Series:
Knots and Crosses (1987) ***
Hide and Seek (1991) ***
Tooth and Nail (original title Wolfman) (1992) ***
Strip Jack (1992) ***½
The Black Book (1993) ***
Mortal Causes (1994) ***
Let it Bleed (1996) ****
Black and Blue (1997) ****½
The Hanging Garden (1998) ****
Dead Souls (1999) ****
Set in Darkness (2000) ****
The Falls (2001) ****
Resurrection Men (2002) ****
A Question of Blood (2003) ****
Fleshmarket Close (2004) ****
The Naming of the Dead (2006) ****½
Exit Music (2007) ****
Standing in Another Man’s Grave (2012) ***½
Saints of the Shadow Bible (2013) ***
Even Dogs in the Wild (2015) ****
Rather Be the Devil (2016) ***½
In a House of Lies (2018) ***½
CRACKER (TV) (UK, 2006) ***½
Distributor: Granada Television; Production Company: Granada Television / ITV Productions; Release Date: 1 October 2006; Running Time: 109m; Colour: Colour; Sound Mix: Dolby Stereo; Film Format: Super 16; Aspect Ratio: 1.78:1; BBFC Cert: 15.
Director: Antonia Bird; Writer: Jimmy McGovern; Executive Producer: Andy Harries; Producer: John Chapman; Director of Photography: Florian Hoffmeister; Music Composer: Gillian Gilbert, Stephen Morris, Conboy Corker; Film Editor: Chris Barwell; Casting Director: Andy Pryor; Production Designer: Tom Bowyer; Art Director: Anna Pritchard; Costume Designer: Rhona Russell; Make-up: Jessica Taylor; Sound: Dennis Cartwright.
Cast: Robbie Coltrane (Fitz), Barbara Flynn (Judith Fitzgerald), Anthony Flanagan (Kenny Archer), Nisha Nayar (DS Saffron Saleh), Richard Coyle (DI Walters), Rafe Spall (DS McAllister), Kieran O’Brien (Mark Fitzgerald), Andrea Lowe (Elaine Archer), Stefanie Wilmore (Katy Fitzgerald), Lisa Eichhorn (Jean Molloy), Demetri Goritsas (Harry Peters), Sara Roache (Chief Super), Matt Rippy (Molloy – American Comedian), Leo Gregory (Wallet Thief), Rosina Carbone (Maria Fitzgerald).
Synopsis: Fitz returns to Manchester for his daughter’s wedding, but is soon involved in another murder investigation when an American comedian is killed, apparently without motive.
Comment: Ten years after the last special (CRACKER: WHITE GHOST) was broadcast, Cracker returned along with its creator and chief writer, Jimmy McGovern. The result is an absorbing and heavily political portrait of a former soldier struggling to come to terms with PTSD. Faced with self-loathing and a hatred for Americans due to their perceived support of the IRA and their response to Nine-Eleven. There are echoes of McGovern’s masterpiece TO BE A SOMEBODY in this story’s portrayal of the soldier’s descent into murder in order to extract his own form of justice. Coltrane slips easily back into his role of psychologist Fitz, called in by the police to help track down the murderer. Flanagan is also excellent as the damaged soldier. Where this story falls short in comparison to the series is in its portrait of the detectives – who here are two-dimensional in characterisation and lacking in the dark humour of their earlier counterparts. On the whole, though, this is a satisfying conclusion to the series and significantly better than the last couple of stories – although the finale, which again resorts to genre convention, lacks the finesse seen across the rest of the story.
CRACKER: WHITE GHOST (TV) (UK, 1996) **
Distributor: ITV – Independent Television; Production Company: A&E Television Networks / Granada Television; Release Date: 28 October 1996; Running Time: 100m; Colour: Colour; Sound Mix: Dolby Stereo; Film Format: 16mm; Aspect Ratio: 1.33:1; BBFC Cert: 15.
Director: Richard Standeven; Writer: Paul Abbott; Executive Producer: Sally Head, Delia Fine; Producer: Hilary Bevan Jones; Director of Photography: Dick Dodd; Music Composer: Rick Wentworth; Film Editor: Tony Cranstoun; Casting Director: Andrew Hall, Marilyn Johnson; Production Designer: Chris Wilkinson; Art Director: David Butterworth; Costume Designer: Tudor George; Make-up: Sue Milton, Anastasia Shirley; Sound: Nick Steer.
Cast: Robbie Coltrane (Fitz), Ricky Tomlinson (D.C.I. Wise), Barnaby Kay (Dennis Philby), Freda Foh Shen (D.C.I. Janet Lee Cheung), Michael Pennington (Commander Gordon Ellison), Rene Liu (Su Lin Tang), Benedict Wong (Peter Yang), Glen Goei (Dr. Frank Sunny), David Bradley (Frank Carter), Pik Sen Lim (Wei Wei).
Synopsis: A British businessman operating in Hong Kong has feelings of inferiority and turns to murder when he faces bankruptcy.
Comment: The first post-series Cracker special suffers from its location transfer to Hong Kong. Whilst this adds a sense of international scale, the production lacks the gritty northern interplay between the cast and is based around a storyline that is pure genre formula. Fitz again too easily comes up with the right deductive answers and this is a problem for maintaining any level of authenticity or dramatic tension. Tomlinson’s appearance is a token gesture and largely played for comedic effect – devaluing the character. This would be the last appearance of Coltrane as Fitz for ten years, until 2006’s CRACKER, which saw the return of creator and scriptwriter Jimmy McGovern.